1. Tourists’ trampling ruins/ damages the soil and vegetation/ greenery
  2. The cap on plants’ reproduction = the limitation of plants’ reproduction
  3. The degradation of air = reduction in air quality
  4. Exacerbate erosion = Increase erosion
  5. Water does not permeates into the land = water runs off the land
  6. Adversities faced by plants and soil = difficult conditions suffered by plants and soil
  7. A vicious circle = one problem leads to another which worsen the previous problem: vòng luẩn quẩn
  8. Tourist trodden area: a place popular to tourists
  9. Detrimental (a) damaging
  10. Aftermath = consequence = corollary

A suggested answer

The flow chart describes how tourists’ trampling ruins the soil and vegetation in the countryside.

                The environmental damages start when visitors walk about the destination, which flattens the grass and hardens the soil in the area. The vegetation is stamped on to the extent so great that they become weaker and lose their capability to grow or reproduce. The cap on plants’ reproduction is also caused by the decline in the quality of air and water in the soil which is more compact as a consequence of trampling. The degradation of air and water in the soil exacerbates erosion when water does not permeate into the land. The adversities faced by plants and soil all result in the reduction of vegetation which involves more soil erosion and destruction of the greenery in a vicious circle.

                Overall, the diagram demonstrates that tourist trodden area has to suffer the detrimental aftermath for both its soil and plants.

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