Based on Oshima, A., & Hogue, A. (2000). Writing academic english. Longman
*** Chronological order: trình tự thời gian
To restate: nhắc lại
To introduce an alternative: giới thiệu 1 cái khác thay thế
Với từ nối mệnh đề:
- Clause 1, FANBOYS Clause 2 (FANBOYS gồm For – bởi vì, And, Nor – cũng không, But, Or – nếu không thì/ hoặc, Yet – nhưng, So – vì thế)
E.g. I have to go as soon as possible, but I need to do this for you first.
Các từ nối phụ thuộc (subordinators) gồm When, Where, Why, Who…, If, Although, Unless, Because, After, Before, Since… Chú ý sự có mặt của dấu phẩy trong ví dụ sau đây.
When I was a child, I often flew kites with my friends in the field.
I don’t follow the rule because I see it nonsense.
Với từ nối câu:
- Conjunctive adverb, Clause
(Conjunctive adverbs là mấy từ như: however, moreover, therefore, as a result, for example…)
E.g. However, he got what he deserved.
- Clause 1; conjunctive adverb, Clause 2 (in compound sentences)
E.g. He was not satisfied with the result; however, he got what he deserved.
***Some special linking expresions:
Hardly/scarcely (đảo ngữ)…when: ngay khi cái này vừa dứt thì cái kia xảy ra
Hardly/ Scarcely had I gone out of the office when the fire started
No sooner (đảo ngữ)…than: ngay khi cái này vừa dứt thì cái kia xảy ra
No sooner had the fire spread than the gas container exploded.
Nor (+ đảo ngữ): cũng không
He doesn’t do any housework, nor does his wife.
Whether …or: liệu có hay không
We haven’t decided whether to go or to stay for a couple of days more.
If…,then: nếu …thì
If this should be done, then let’s do it as soon as possible.
Would rather…than: thà… còn hơn
I would rather stay single than get married to an irresponsible woman.
Despite/ In spite of + Phrases ( noun phrases or V-ing phrases): mặc dù
Despite/ In spite of his illness/ being ill, he still joins the game.
Although/ Though + Clauses
Although he is ill, he still joins the game.
Because + Clause
Because the flood rose too fast, the community had no time to evacuate.
Because of + phrase
Because of the fast rise of the flood, the community had no time to evacuate.
As (conjunction) + Clause/ adv/ prep phrase: như, giống như
You should do as I say.
Take the 5 steps as before/ as in the last assignment
Like ( prep) + noun/pronoun: như, giống như
He has blue eyes like me.
Not only …but also/ but…as well: không những mà còn
Not only does he work part time, but he also has a full time job.
During (adv) + Phrase: trong suốt (khoản thời gian)
During the summer, I was busy setting up my plan for the start of the new school year.
While, When (conjunctions) + Clause: trong suốt (khoản thời gian)
While everyone was enjoying the summer, I was busy setting up my plan for the start of the new school year.
1.Fill in the blanks with suitable coordinators: FANBOYS (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So)
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable subordinators: after, although, before, so, unless, whether, wherever, whenever, since, once, etc.
3. Fill in the blanks with the conjunctions given in parentheses.
It was very hot. Consequently, we decided to go swimming. (Consequently, So)
It was very hot, so we decided to go swimming. (Consequently, So)